Article Data

  • Views 489
  • Dowloads 143

Original Research

Open Access

Evaluation of the effects of pain scale and analgesic administration on radiological imaging methods and hospitalization in trauma patients admitted to the emergency service

  • Figen Tunali Turkdogan1
  • Abuzer Coşkun2

1Bahçelievler Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey

2University of Health Sciences, Bagcılar Training and Research Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2021.037 Vol.17,Issue 5,September 2021 pp.77-85

Submitted: 07 January 2021 Accepted: 01 February 2021

Published: 08 September 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Figen Tunali Turkdogan E-mail: turkdogandr@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Trauma, one of the major concerns in today’s world, exposes societies to important economic, social and health-related problems. Trauma is known to account for 10% of the world’s deaths.

Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the demographic characteristics of trauma, which is common in emergency services and causes significant loss of workload and function when appropriate diagnosis and treatment methods are not applied, with radiological imaging methods, pain scale and analgesics.

Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 1267 patients over the age of 18, who were admitted to the emergency department due to trauma between 1 January and 31 December 2019. The mean age of patients was 47.01 ± 14.97 year, with a male/female ratio of 1.46. 59.3% of the patients were male and 40.7% were female. Patients’ trauma types, radiology results, mortality, numerical pain scale and analgesic administration were evaluated.

Results: Numerical pain scale score of trauma patients in the emergency department was 6.23 ± 2.02. Analysis of radiological imaging methods showed significance with age, numerical pain scale, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, thoracic and abdominal injuries, types of trauma, consultation, hospitalization, analgesics administration and pain severity. Trauma types were insignificant with age and gender, but a significant relationship was found with all other parameters. Pain intensity was not correlated with gender and tetanus application but was significant with other variables. There was significance in radiological imaging methods and diagnostic types between injury types. Types of diagnosis were found to be correlated with imaging methods, orthopedic consultation, numerical pain scale and injury types. There was a significant correlation with the types of diagnosis, analgesia administration, consultation, and pain classification according to the pain rating scale. There was no correlation between age and gender according to pain intensity. However, there was a strong positive correlation with pain scale scores, consultation, hospitalization, types of trauma, administration of analgesia, and a weak correlation with radiological imaging methods.

Conclusion: Early pain scale with radiological imaging and analgesic administration in trauma patients can reduce morbidity rates and shorten hospital stay.


Keywords

Emergency service; Traumas; Numerical pain scale; Radiology; Analgesia


Cite and Share

Figen Tunali Turkdogan,Abuzer Coşkun. Evaluation of the effects of pain scale and analgesic administration on radiological imaging methods and hospitalization in trauma patients admitted to the emergency service. Signa Vitae. 2021. 17(5);77-85.

References

[1] MacKenzie EJ, Fowler CJ. Epidemiology. In: Mattox KL, Feliciano DV, Moore EE (eds). Trauma (pp. 21-41). 4th ed. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. 2000.

[2] Ertekin C, Belgerden S. First approach to the trauma patient. National Trauma. 1995; 1: 117-125.

[3] Kihtir T. Epidemiology and scoring systems. Kihtir T (editor). Trauma Surgery. 1. Printing (pp. 1-8). Istanbul: National Medical Bookstore. 1995.

[4] Taviloğlu K, Ertekin C, Türel Ö ve ark. Determination and recommenda-tions on the level and problems of medical emergency assistance in the province of Istanbul. Nation Trauma. 1998; 4: 95-100.

[5] Board of the Faculty of Clinical Radiology. Standards of practice and guidance for trauma radiology in severely injured patients RCR Standards. Clinical Radiology. 2020; 1-23.

[6] Walton DM, Krebs D, Moulden D, Wade P, Levesque L, Elliott J, et al. The traumatic injuries distress scale: a new tool that quantifies distress and has predictive validity with patient-reported outcomes. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2016; 46: 920-928.

[7] Stites M. Observational pain scales in critically ill adults. Critical Care Nurse. 2013; 33: 68-78.

[8] Grant PS. Analgesia delivery in the ED. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2007; 24: 806-809.

[9] Jones J, Southerland W, Catalani B. The importance of optimizing acute pain in the orthopedic trauma patient. The Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2017; 48: 445-465.

[10] Teanby S. A literature review into pain assessment at triage in accident and emergency departments. Accident and Emergency Nursing. 2003; 11: 12- 17.

[11] Graham J. Adult patients’ perceptions of pain management at triage: a small exploratory study. Accident and Emergency Nursing. 2002; 10: 78-86.

[12] Newton-Brown E, Fitzgerald L, Mitra B. Audit improves emergency department triage, assessment, multi-modal analgesia and nerve block use in the management of pain in older people with neck of femur fracture. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal. 2014; 17: 176-183.

[13] McCallum T. Pain management in Australian emergency departments: a critical appraisal of evidence based practice. Australian Emergency Nursing Journal. 2004; 6: 9-13.

[14] Eti Aslan F. Pain assessment methods. CU Journal of School of Nursing. 2002: 6: 9-16.

[15] Pasero C, McCaffery M. When patients can’t report pain. American Journal of Nursing. 2000; 100: 22-23.

[16] Silka PA, Roth MM, Moreno G, Merrill L, Geiderman JM. Pain scores improve analgesic administration patterns for trauma patients in the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2004; 11: 264-270.

[17] Lozner AW, Reisner A, Shear ML, Patel S, Connolly J, Shaltis P, et al. Pain severity is the key to emergency department patientsʼ preferred frequency of pain assessment. European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2010; 17: 30-32.

[18] Latremoliere A, Woolf CJ. Central sensitization: a generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity. The Journal of Pain. 2009; 10: 895-926.

[19] Porter ME. A strategy for health care reform-toward a value-based system. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009; 361: 109-112.

[20] Pelligand L, Mora SS. Pain assessment methods. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2018; 6: 113-123.

[21] Alavi NM, Aboutalebi MS, Sadat Z. Verbal and non-verbal rating scales in the determination of pain severity in trauma patients in the emergency department. Trauma Monthly. 2017; 22: 1-7.

[22] Ko A, Harada MY, Smith EJT, Scheipe M, Alban RF, Melo N, et al. Pain assessment and control in the injured elderly. The American Surgeon. 2016; 82: 867-871.

[23] Scalcione LR, Gimber LH, Ho AM, Johnston SS, Sheppard JE, Taljanovic MS. Spectrum of carpal dislocations and fracture-dislocations: imaging and management. AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2014; 203: 541- 550.

[24] Belsky MR , Leibman MI, Ruchelsman DE. Scaphoid fractures in athletes. Hand Clinics. 2012; 28: 269-78.

[25] Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (formerly Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/ .2003 (Accessed: 01 January 2021).

[26] Zohar Z, Eitan A, Halperin P, Stolero J, Hadid S, Shemer J, et al. Pain relief in major trauma patients: an Israeli perspective. The Journal of Trauma. 2001; 51: 767-772.

[27] Silka PA, Roth MM, Geiderman JM. Patterns of analgesic use in trauma patients in the ED. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2002; 20: 298-302.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index The CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool is an online resource that can quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.

IndexCopernicus The Index Copernicus International (ICI) Journals database’s is an international indexation database of scientific journals. It covered international scientific journals which divided into general information, contents of individual issues, detailed bibliography (references) sections for every publication, as well as full texts of publications in the form of attached files (optional). For now, there are more than 58,000 scientific journals registered at ICI.

Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization established in 2002 and it works in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the Foundation are to promote and develop health education and research programs.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.5(2019) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Embase Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE), produced by Elsevier, is a biomedical and pharmacological database of published literature designed to support information managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatory requirements of a licensed drug.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top