Article Data

  • Views 595
  • Dowloads 161

Original Research

Open Access

Challenges in basic life support and automated external defibrillator training of deaf individuals

  • Matej Strnad1,2,3
  • Zdenko Šalda4,5
  • Boštjan Jerko6
  • Vida Vrečar1
  • Vesna Borovnik Lesjak1
  • Rok Petrovčič2

1Center for Emergency Medicine, Prehospital unit, Community healthcare center, Cesta proletarskih brigad 21, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

2Emergency department, University Medical Center Maribor, Ljubljanska ul. 5, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

3Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical faculty, University of Maribor, Taborska 8, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

4Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Novo Mesto, Na Loko 2, 8000 Novo mesto, Slovenia

5Community Health Center Trebnje, Golijev trg 3, 8210 Trebnje, Slovenia

6Japina LLC, Ravnik 31, 8232 Šentrupert, Slovenia

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2021.019 Vol.17,Issue 2,March 2021 pp.98-103

Published: 08 March 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Matej Strnad E-mail: strnad.matej78@gmail.com

Abstract

Objectives: Basic life support (BLS) with the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) is linked to survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, the BLS protocol is not tailored to specific needs of the deaf who encounter many challenges during BLS training.

Methods: The BLS and AED protocol was modified according to the challenges faced by deaf people. Pre-course BLS and AED knowledge was tested using a questionnaire. After completion of a practical course, each participant was presented with an OHCA scenario using a manikin. Qualitative and quantitative data on BLS and AED performance were collected with a modified Cardiff test and the QCPR mobile application. Results of the knowledge test and performance scores are presented with values and frequencies. Correlations between pre- and post-course BLS and AED knowledge and performance were analyzed and presented with Spearman’s rho.

Results: 51 deaf volunteers from seven Slovenian deaf associations participated in the study. The pre-course knowledge test scores were 3.5 points out of 10 and considered low. The rest of the results were also poor. BLS performance using the modified Cardiff test post-course was as follows: 52.9% of the participants used a safe approach, 58.8% checked responsiveness and 51.0% sent a text message to the rescue service. Only 43.1% opened the airway and 49.0% checked initial breathing. 80.4% of deaf rescuers performed chest compressions on the lower half of the sternum and 52.9% compressed with adequate depth. According to the QCPR application the best performance was achieved with a compression score of 61.1% and flow fraction 74.9%.

Conclusions: This study shows that a comprehensive and assiduous approach is needed for effective BLS and AED training courses for deaf individuals.


Keywords

Automated external defibrillator; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Deafness; Education


Cite and Share

Matej Strnad,Zdenko Šalda,Boštjan Jerko,Vida Vrečar,Vesna Borovnik Lesjak,Rok Petrovčič. Challenges in basic life support and automated external defibrillator training of deaf individuals. Signa Vitae. 2021. 17(2);98-103.

References

[1] Gräsner JT, Lefering R, Koster RW, Masterson S, Böttiger BW, Herlitz J, et al. EuReCa ONE-27 Nations, ONE Europe, ONE Registry: a prospective one month analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes in 27 countries in Europe. Resuscitation 2016; 105: 188-195.

[2] Perkins GD, Handley AJ, Koster RW, Castrén M, Smyth MA, Olasveengen T, et al. European resuscitation council guidelines for resuscitation 2015: section 2. Adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation. Resuscitation. 2015; 95: 81-99.

[3] Greif R, Lockey AS, Conaghan P, Lippert A, De Vries W, Monsieurs KG. European resuscitation council guidelines for resuscitation 2015: section 10. Education and implementation of resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2016; 95: 288-301.

[4] Unnikrishnan R, Babu AS, Rao PT, Aithal V, Krishna HM. Training individuals with speech and hearing impairment in basic life support: a pilot study. Resuscitation. 2017; 117: e23-e24.

[5] Kerber RE, Becker LB, Bourland JD, Cummins RO, Hallstrom AP, Michos MB, et al. Automatic external defibrillators for public access defibrillation: recommendations for specifying and reporting arrhythmia analysis algorithm performance, incorporating new waveforms, and enhancing safety. a statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association Task Force on Automatic External Defibrillation, Subcommittee on AED Safety and Efficacy. Circulation. 1997; 95: 1677-1682.

[6] Sandroni C, Fenici P, Franchi ML, Cavallaro F, Menchinelli C, Antonelli M. Automated external defibrillation by untrained deaf lay rescuers. Resuscitation. 2004; 63: 43-48.

[7] Tomasetti JA, Beck KH, Clearwater HE. An analysis of selected instruc-tional methods on cardiopulmonary resuscitation retention competency of deaf and non-deaf college students. American Annals of the Deaf. 1983; 128: 474-478.

[8] Valli C, Lucas C, Mulrooney K. Linguistic of American sign language. 4 ed. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press. 2005.

[9] Holt JA. Stanford achievement test-8th edition: reading comprehension subgroup results. American Annals of the Deaf. 1993; 138: 172-175.

[10] Margellos-Anast H, Estarziau M, Kaufman G. Cardiovascular disease knowledge among culturally deaf patients in Chicago. Preventive Medicine. 2006; 42: 235-239.

[11] Pollard RQ, Barnett S. Health-related vocabulary knowledge among deaf adults. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2009; 54: 182-185.

[12] Smith SR, Samar VJ. Dimensions of deaf/hard-of-hearing and hearing adolescents’ health literacy and health knowledge. Journal of Health Communication. 2016; 21: 141-154.

[13] Smith SR, Kushalnagar P, Hauser PC. Deaf adolescents’ learning of cardiovascular health information: sources and access challenges. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. 2016; 20: 408-418.

[14] Borovnik Lesjak V, Šorgo A, Strnad M. Development, validation and assessment of the test on knowledge about basic life support and use of automated external defibrillator among schoolchildren. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. 2019; 27: 114.

[15] Rihtar A. Level of knowledge of basic resuscitation procedures with the use of the automated external defibrillator at lay persons before and after 2- hour education. Maribor: University of Maribor. 2019. (In Slovene).

[16] Bylow H, Karlsson T, Claesson A, Lepp M, Lindqvist J, Herlitz J. Self-learning training versus instructor-led training for basic life support: a cluster randomised trial. Resuscitation. 2019; 139: 122-132.

[17] Müller MP, Poenicke C, Kurth M, Richter T, Koch T, Eisold C, et al. Quality of basic life support when using different commercially available public access defibrillators. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. 2015; 23: 48.

[18] Beck KH, Tomasetti JA. A national survey of cardiopulmonary resus-citation training for the deaf. American Annals of the Deaf. 1983; 128: 909-912.

[19] Bavelier D, Tomann A, Hutton C, Mitchell T, Corina D, Liu G, et al. Visual attention to the periphery is enhanced in congenitally deaf individuals. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2000; 20: RC93.

[20] Dye MW, Hauser PC, Bavelier D. Is visual selective attention in deaf individuals enhanced or deficient? The case of the useful field of view. PLoS ONE. 2009; 4: e5640.

[21] Dye MWG, Baril DE, Bavelier D. Which aspects of visual attention are changed by deafness? The case of the attentional network test. Neuropsychologia. 2007; 45: 1801-1811.

[22] Dye MWG, Hauser PC. Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children. Hearing Research. 2014; 309: 94-102.

[23] Horn DL, Davis RAO, Pisoni DB, Miyamoto RT. Development of visual attention skills in prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants. Ear and Hearing. 2005; 26: 389-408.


Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index The CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool is an online resource that can quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.

IndexCopernicus The Index Copernicus International (ICI) Journals database’s is an international indexation database of scientific journals. It covered international scientific journals which divided into general information, contents of individual issues, detailed bibliography (references) sections for every publication, as well as full texts of publications in the form of attached files (optional). For now, there are more than 58,000 scientific journals registered at ICI.

Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization established in 2002 and it works in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the Foundation are to promote and develop health education and research programs.

Scopus: CiteScore 0.5(2019) Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Embase Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE), produced by Elsevier, is a biomedical and pharmacological database of published literature designed to support information managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatory requirements of a licensed drug.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

Top