Article Data

  • Views 155
  • Dowloads 21

Meta-Analyses

Open Access

Pharmacological interventions for preventing rocuronium-induced pain responses and rocuronium-induced withdrawal responses: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

  • Sun-Kyung Park1
  • Geun-Joo Choi2
  • Hyun Kang2

1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Republic of Korea

2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22514/sv.2020.16.0108 Vol.17,Issue 1,January 2021 pp.178-197

Published: 08 January 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Hyun Kang E-mail: roman00@naver.com

Abstract

Study objective: Rocuronium is widely used during the induction of general anesthesia. However, it is associated with rocuronium-induced pain response, which can appear as a rocuronium-induced withdrawal response. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions in preventing rocuronium-induced pain response and rocuronium-induced withdrawal response using a network meta-analysis. Design: Systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of RCTs. Setting: Pharmacological interventions to prevent rocuronium-induced pain response and rocuronium-induced pain response and rocuronium-induced withdrawal. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Google Scholar were systematically searched from its inception until Mar 2020. Methods: We searched multiple databases and extracted randomized controlled trials that compared two or more pharmacological interventions to prevent rocuronium-induced pain response and rocuronium-induced withdrawal response in adult patients who received rocuronium injections for general anesthesia. We conducted network meta-analysis and used surface under the cumulative ranking curve values and rankograms to present the hierarchy of the pharmacological interventions evaluated. Results: In total, 43 studies (5,291 patients) were included in this network meta-analysis and 31 pharmacological interventions were evaluated. The rankogram and cumulative ranking plot showed that oxycodone followed by a combination of lidocaine and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), esmolol, alfentanil, and rocuronium mixed with NaHCO3 had the lowest frequency of rocuronium-induced withdrawal response. In terms of rocuronium-induced pain response, NaHCO3 mixed with rocuronium showed the lowest frequency, followed by a combination of lidocaine and NaHCO3, a combination of lidocaine and nitrous oxide, rocuronium mixed with lidocaine, and lidocaine. Conclusions: Lidocaine administration has been shown to reduce the incidence of rocuronium-induced pain response regardless of the method of injection or drug combination. The combination of lidocaine and NaHCO3 or mixing NaHCO3with rocuronium was effective at reducing rocuronium-induced withdrawal response. In particular, oxycodone was shown to be more effective than the other opioids evaluated and esmolol was also found to be effective at reducing rocuronium-induced withdrawal response.

Keywords

Network meta-analysis; Pain; Rocuronium; Withdrawal response

Cite and Share

Sun-Kyung Park,Geun-Joo Choi,Hyun Kang. Pharmacological interventions for preventing rocuronium-induced pain responses and rocuronium-induced withdrawal responses: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Signa Vitae. 2021. 17(1);178-197.

References

[1] Wright P, Caldwell JE, Miller RD. Onset and duration of rocuronium and succinylcholine at the adductor pollicis and laryngeal adductor muscles in anesthetized humans. Anesthesiology. 1994; 81: 1110-1115.

[2] Mehta MP, Choi WW, Gergis SD, Sokoll MD, Adolphson A. Facilitation of rapid endotracheal intubations with divided doses of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs. Anesthesiology. 1985; 62: 392-395.

[3] Choi GJ, Lee S, Lee JH, Park SG, Kang H. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention for rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in the Korean population: A meta-analysis of 41 studies including 4,742 subjects. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2014; 66:419-432.

[4] Ahmad N, Choy CY, Aris EA, Balan S. Preventing the withdrawal response associated with rocuronium injection: a comparison of fentanyl with lidocaine. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2005; 100: 987-990.

[5] Lee YC, Jang YH, Kim JM, Lee SG. Rapid injection of rocuronium re-duces withdrawal movement on injection. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2009; 21: 427-430.

[6] Moorthy SS, Dierdorf SF. Pain on injection of rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 1995; 80: 1067.

[7] Oh AY, Seo KS, Goo EK, Park YO, Kim SJ, Kim JH. Prevention of withdrawal movement associated with injection of rocuronium in children: comparison of remifentanil, alfentanil and fentanyl. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2007; 51: 1190-1193.

[8] Lui JT, Huang SJ, Yang CY, Hsu JC, Lui PW. Rocuronium-induced generalized spontaneous movements cause pulmonary aspiration. Chang Gung Medical Journal. 2002; 25: 617-620.

[9] Cakirgoz MY, Demirel I, Duran E, Ozer AB, Turkmen UA, Ersoy A, et al. Gabapentin pretreatment for propofol and rocuronium injection pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2018; 21: 43-48.

[10] Ayoglu H, Altunkaya H, Ozer Y, Yapakci O, Cukdar G, Ozkocak I. Does dexmedetomidine reduce the injection pain due to propofol and rocuronium? European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 2007; 24: 541-545.

[11] Joo J, Baek J, Lee J. Dexmedetomidine reduces pain associated with rocuronium injection without causing a decrease in BIS values: a dose-response study. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2014; 26: 475-479.

[12] Kim E, Kim CH, Kim HK, Kwon JY, Lee DW, Kim HY. Effect of nitrous oxide inhalation on pain after propofol and rocuronium injection. Journal of Anesthesia. 2013; 27: 868-873.

[13] Kim KS, Kim YS, Jeon WJ, Yeom JH. Prevention of withdrawal associated with the injection of rocuronium in adults and children. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2006; 18: 334-338.

[14] Memis D, Turan A, Karamanlioglu B, Sut N, Pamukcu Z. The prevention of pain from injection of rocuronium by ondansetron, lidocaine, tramadol, and fentanyl. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2002; 94: 1517-1520, table of contents.

[15] Park KB, Jeon Y, Yi J, Kim JH, Chung SY, Kwak KH. The effect of palonosetron on rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia. 2017; 67: 337-341.

[16] Sivakumar S, Singh NR, Singh LD, Rajkumar G, Thokchom RS, Devi LE. A comparative study of lignocaine and nitrous oxide for rocuronium injection pain. Journal of Medical Society. 2015; 29: 64-68.

[17] Yavascaoglu B, Kaya FN, Ozcan B. Esmolol pretreatment reduces the frequency and severity of pain on injection of rocuronium. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2007; 19: 413-417.

[18] Choi YJ, Park HS, Lee H, Yoon SZ. Single pretreatment of remifentanil may reduce pain after propofol and rocuronium injection in rapid sequence induction. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2012; 63: 413-418.

[19] Jeon Y, Ha JH, Lee JE, Lee HC, Ryu T, Kwak KH. Rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement: influence of ketorolac or a combination of lidocaine and ketorolac pretreatment. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2013; 64: 25-28.

[20] Jung KT, Kim HJ, Bae HS, Lee HY, Kim SH, So KY, et al. Effects of lidocaine, ketamine, and remifentanil on withdrawal response of rocuronium. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2014; 67: 175-180.

[21] Honca M, Purtuloglu T, Honca T, Sizlan A, Deniz S, Kose A, et al. Effects of the menstrual cycle on injection pain due to rocuronium. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2013; 25: 399-402.

[22] Lee JI, Lim SH, Lee SE, Kim YH, Lee JH, Lee KM, et al. Priming tech-nique can alleviate the withdrawal responses associated with intravenous administration of rocuronium. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2009; 56: 628-633.

[23] Borgeat A, Kwiatkowski D. Spontaneous movements associated with rocuronium: is pain on injection the cause? British Journal of Anaesthesia. 1997; 79: 382-383.

[24] Lee HJ, Han SJ, Kim H, Lee IO, Kong MH, Kim NS, et al. Antihistamine pretreatment to reduce incidence of withdrawal movement after rocuronium injection. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2009; 24: 879-882.

[25] Sharma S, Sharma D, Jain A, Jain A. Effect of nitrous oxide on pain due to rocuronium injection: A randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2010; 54: 142-146.

[26] Shin YH, Choi SJ, Jeong HY, Kim MH. Evaluation of dose effects of magnesium sulfate on rocuronium injection pain and hemodynamic changes by laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Korean journal of anesthesiology. 2011; 60: 329-333.

[27] Turan A, Memis D, Karamanlioglu B, Sut N, Pamukcu Z. The prevention of pain from injection of rocuronium by magnesium sulphate, lignocaine, sodium bicarbonate and alfentanil. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care. 2003; 31: 277-281.

[28] Prabhakar H, Singh GP, Ali Z, Kalaivani M, Smith MA. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for reducing rocuronium bromide induced pain on injection in children and adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016; 2: CD009346.

[29] Kwak HJ, Kim JY, Kim YB, Min SK, Moon BK, Kim JY. Pharmaco-logical prevention of rocuronium-induced injection pain or withdrawal movements: a meta-analysis. Journal of Anesthesia. 2013; 27: 742-749.

[30] Cui Y, Li G, Cao R, Luan L, Kla KM. The effect of perioperative anes-thetics for prevention of postoperative delirium on general anesthesia: A network meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2020; 59: 89-98.

[31] Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. British Medical Journal. 2015; 350: g7647.

[32] Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page M, et al. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of intervention. The Cochrane Collaboration. 2019.

[33] Cornell JE. The PRISMA extension for network meta-analysis: bringing clarity and guidance to the reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2015; 162: 797-798.

[34] Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li TJ, Page M, et al. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in a randomized trial. 2019. In: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The Cochrane Collaboration. 2019.

[35] Chaimani A, Higgins JP, Mavridis D, Spyridonos P, Salanti G. Graphical tools for network meta-analysis in STATA. PLoS One. 2013; 8: e76654.

[36] White IR, Barrett JK, Jackson D, Higgins JP. Consistency and incon-sistency in network meta-analysis: model estimation using multivariate meta-regression. Research Synthesis Methods. 2012; 3: 111-125.

[37] Salanti G, Ades AE, Ioannidis JP. Graphical methods and numerical summaries for presenting results from multiple-treatment meta-analysis: an overview and tutorial. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2011; 64:163- 171.

[38] Riley RD, Higgins JP, Deeks JJ. Interpretation of random effects meta-analyses. British Medical Journal. 2011; 342: d549.

[39] Atkins D, Best D, Briss PA, Eccles M, Falck-Ytter Y, Flottorp S, et al. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. British Medical Journal. 2004; 328: 1490.

[40] Abu-Halaweh SA, Aloweidi AK, Qudaisat IY, Al-Hussami MO, Al Zaben KR, Abu-Halaweh AS. Pretreatment with remifentanil, fentanyl, or lidocaine to prevent withdrawal after rocuronium using venous occlusion technique in children and adolescents: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Journal of Anesthesia. 2014; 28: 886-890.

[41] Kim JY, Kim JY, Kim YB, Kwak HJ. Pretreatment with remifentanil to prevent withdrawal after rocuronium in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2007; 98: 120-123.

[42] Kim JY, Kwak HJ, Kim JY, Park KS, Song JS. Prevention of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in children: A comparison of remifentanil with alfentanil. Paediatric Anaesthesia. 2008; 18: 245-250.

[43] Kwak HJ, Chae YJ, Lee SY, Kim YJ, Kim JY. Combination of nitrous oxide and lidocaine to prevent withdrawal after rocuronium in children. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2010; 58: 446-449.

[44] Liou JT, Hsu JC, Liu FC, Ching-Wah Sum D, Lui PW. Pretreatment with small-dose ketamine reduces withdrawal movements associated with injection of rocuronium in pediatric patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2003; 97: 1294-1297.

[45] Park SH, Oh AY, Goo EK, Nahm FS, Min SW, Hwang JW, et al. A short period of inhalation induction with sevoflurane prevents rocuronium-induced withdrawal in children. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2011; 55: 87-91.

[46] Shevchenko Y, Jocson JC, McRae VA, Stayer SA, Schwartz RE, Rehman M, et al. The use of lidocaine for preventing the withdrawal associated with the injection of rocuronium in children and adolescents. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 1999; 88: 746-748.

[47] Yoon JR, Jeon Y, Yoo Y, Shin HJ, Ahn JH, Lim CH. The analgesic effect of remifentanil on prevention of withdrawal response associated with the injection of rocuronium in children: no evidence for a peripheral action. Journal of International Medical Research. 2010; 38: 1795-1800.

[48] Shabana AM, Nasr ES. Prevention of rocuronium injection pain in paediatrics: Ketamine versus midazolam? A prospective randomized double blind study. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2011; 27: 141-144.

[49] Cheong SH, Kim SY, Lee KM, Choe YK, Kim YJ, Park JW, et al. The Effect of Pretreatment with Ketamine on Vascular Pain Due to an Intravenous Rocuronium Injection in Pediatric Patients. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2003; 45: 447-450.

[50] Na YC, Lee HG, Lee SH, Jang EA, Yoon MH. The efficacy of sevolflurane inhalation alone or its combination with intravenous remifentanil against withdrawal movements on rocuronium injection in children. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2014; 67: 373.

[51] Jung JD, An TH, Song HS. The dose-dependent effect of remifentanil for withdrawal responses on injection of recuronium in children. Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2009; 4: 170-173.

[52] Polat R, Akın M, Keskin G, Ünal D, Dönmez A. Prevention of withdrawal movement associated with the injection of rocuronium in children: Comparison of paracetamol and lidocaine. Turkish journal of anaesthesiology and reanimation. 2016; 44: 86-90.

[53] Lee JY, Lee KC, Kim HS, Bang MS, Chang YJ. The dose-dependent effect of alfentanil on the rocuronium induced withdrawal in children. Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2009; 4: 348-351.

[54] Jung SM, Kim SH, Lim YS, Kwon HU, Kang PS, Park CW. The effect of sodium bicarbonate or lidocaine mixed with rocuronium on withdrawal movement in pediatric patients. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 48: 514-519.

[55] Kwak HJ, Kim YB, Kim EJ, Kim JY. Prevention of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in children: a comparison of remifentanil with lidocaine. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2008; 54: 437-440.

[56] Chang SH, Kim HY, Park JY, Lee HW, Lim HJ, Yoon SM. The preventive effect of lidocaine on the withdrawal associated with the injection of rocuronium in children. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; 46: 665-669.

[57] Park SJ, Lee JY, Jee DL. The effect of rocuronium diluted with 0.9%nacl on withdrawal response during injection in pediatric patients. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2006; 51: 157-161.

[58] Kim KS, Chae YJ, Park SY, Cho HB, Kim JS. The effect of pretreatment with lidocaine for the withdrawal movement associated with the injection of rocuronium in children. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2002; 43: 572-574.

[59] He Q, Zhou C, Zhu Y. The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist in preventing pain/limb shrinkage reaction associated with rocuronium injection. BioMed Research International. 2018; 2018: 4128415.

[60] Lee SS, Yoon H. A comparison of the effect of lidocaine or sodium bicarbonate mixed with rocuronium on withdrawal movement, mean arterial pressure and heart rate during rocuronium injection. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2009; 39: 270-278.

[61] Sari M, Iyilikci L, Bayindir S, Ellidokuz H, Gunerli A. Comparison of the effectiveness of pretreatment by fentanyl and remifentanil on rocuronium induced injection pain. Saudi Medical Journal. 2008; 29: 374-378.

[62] Goyal R, Jindal P, Khurana G. A comparison of granisetron and nitroglycerine for attenuating rocuronium pain: A double-blinded randomized, placebo controlled trial. Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. 2014; 8: 83-87.

[63] Lim CS, Shin YS. The effects of remifentanil pretreatment on rocuronium injection pain and cardiovascular response during anesthetic induction. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2006; 50: 637-641.

[64] Ko H-M, Hong H-P, Yoon J-Y, Yoon J-U, Lee D-W, Kim C-H. Desflurane inhalation provide cardiovascular stability during intubation but prevention of rocuronium injection pain. Journal of the Korean Dental Society of Anesthesiology. 2013; 13: 117-120.

[65] Erbabacan E, Köksal GM, Tütüncü ÇA, Ekici B, Tunalı Y, Kaya G, et al. Comparison of the effects of different concentrations of rocuronium on injection pain and hemodynamics using isolated forearm technique. Turkish journal of anaesthesiology and reanimation. 2013; 41: 162-166.

[66] Mubarak KK, Ummer SU. Effect of pretreatment with intravenous thiopentone versus lignocaine on pain due to rocuronium bromide: a comparative study. Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2016; August : 3699-3703.

[67] Abu-Halaweh SA, Aloweidi AK, Qudaisat IY, Al-Hussami MO, Atyat BS, Al-Mustafa M, et al. Comparison of three methods of preventing rocuronium induced pain on injection using venous occlusion technique: a randomized prospective double blind controlled study. Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology. 2013; 22: 87-92.

[68] Kim KS, Kim YS, Jeon WJ, Yeom JH. Prevention of withdrawal associated with the injection of rocuronium in adults and children. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2006; 18: 334-338.

[69] Akkaya T, Toygar P, Bedirli N, Yazicioğlu D, Gümüş H. Effects of pretreatment with lidocaine or ketamine on injection pain and withdrawal movements of rocuronium. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2008; 38: 577-582.

[70] Choi YJ, Park HS, Lee H, Yoon SZ. Single pretreatment of remifentanil may reduce pain after propofol and rocuronium injection in rapid sequence induction. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2012; 63: 413-418.

[71] Jeon Y, Ha JH, Lee JE, Lee HC, Ryu T, Kwak KH. Rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement: influence of ketorolac or a combination of lidocaine and ketorolac pretreatment. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2013; 64: 25-28.

[72] Jung KT, Kim HJ, Bae HS, Lee HY, Kim SH, So KY, et al. Effects of lidocaine, ketamine, and remifentanil on withdrawal response of rocuronium. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2014; 67: 175-180.

[73] Ikram M, Ishaque M, Masood N, Abbas A. Effects of pre-treatment with lignocaine on pain of rocuronium injection and withdrawal movements of the arm. Annals of Punjab Medical College (APMC). 2008; 2: 113-116.

[74] Park SE, Park SH, Cho YW, Son HW, Lee JH, Kim DY. Hemodynamic responses of pretreatments designed to reduce withdrawal movements following rocuronium injection: a comparison of alfentanil with lidocaine. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2008; 54: 507-512.

[75] Cho HY, Kim DY, Chung RK. The effect of lidocaine or fentanyl on withdrawal movement during rocuronium injection. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2007; 53: 174-179.

[76] Binarani M, Singh YA, Lairenlakpam DS, Singh SM, Eshori L, Sinam

N. Efficacy of pretreatment with intravenous paracetamol and lidocaine on rocuronium injection pain: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Medical Society. 2017; 31: 99-103.

[77] Boota M, Wasim MH, Ali L. Comparison of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketorolac pretreatment on withdrawal movement induced by rocuronium injection. Anaesthesia, Pain & Intensive Care. 2019; : 31-36.

[78] Jeon Y, Baek SU, Park SS, Kim SO, Baek WY, Yeo JS. Effect of pretreatment with acetaminophen on withdrawal movements associated with injection of rocuronium: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2010; 59: 13- 16.

[79] Lee JI, Lim SH, Lee SE, Kim YH, Lee JH, Lee KM, et al. Priming tech-nique can alleviate the withdrawal responses associated with intravenous administration of rocuronium. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2009; 56: 628-633.

[80] Akcaboy ZN, Akcaboy EY, Soyal OB, Turhan G, Gogus N. Can ephedrine pretreatment be effective in alleviating rocuronium injection pain? Medical Principles & Practice. 2012; 21: 323-327.

[81] Cheong KF, Wong WH. Pain on injection of rocuronium: influence of two doses of lidocaine pretreatment. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2000; 84: 106-107.

[82] Singh M, Chauhan H, Rath GP, Prabhakar H, Bithal PK, Dash HH. Effect of narcotic pretreatment on pain after rocuronium injection: a randomized, double-blind controlled comparison with lidocaine. Journal of Anesthesia. 2007; 21: 510-512.

[83] Uzun S, Erden IA, Canbay O, Aypar U. The effect of intravenous paracetamol for the prevention of rocuronium injection pain. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014; 30: 566-569.

[84] Zhang Y, Xiang Y, Liu J. Prevention of pain on injection of rocuronium: a comparison of lidocaine with different doses of parecoxib. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2012; 24: 456-459.

[85] Reddy M, Chen FG, Ng HP. Effect of ondansetron pretreatment on pain after rocuronium and propofol injection: a randomised, double-blind controlled comparison with lidocaine. Anaesthesia. 2001; 56: 902-905.

[86] Byun JH, Kim JS, Park SW, Kang WJ. The Effect of Metoclopramide or Lidocaine Pretreatment on Pain during Rocuronium Injection. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 49: 35-39.

[87] Wee SY, Lee HY, An TH, So GY, Lim KJ, Jung JD, et al. The dose-dependent analgesic effect of lidocaine for pain on injecting rocuronium. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; 47: 327-330.

[88] Lee SK, Lee JM, Kim YM, Moon HS. Pain on injection of rocuronium: the effect of pretreatment of lidocaine, fentanyl, and ondansetron. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; 46: 151-154.

[89] Hwang SH, Jeon YH, Baek WY. The prevention of rocuronium injection pain by lidocaine pretreatment. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2003; 45: 451-455.

[90] Ates G, Kose EA, Oz G, Apan A. Effect of paracetamol pretreatment on rocuronium-induced injection pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled comparison with lidocaine. Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine. 2014; 5: 508-510.

[91] Eun SS, An TH. The comparison of the effects of ondansetron, lidocaine, and tramadol for the prevention of pain on injection of rocuronium. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 48: 20-23.

[92] An X, Li C, Sahebally Z, Wen X, Zhao B, Fang X. Pretreatment with oxycodone simultaneously reduces etomidate-induced myoclonus and rocuronium-induced withdrawal movements during rapid-sequence induction. Medical Science Monitor. 2017; 23: 4989-4994.

[93] Aydin GB, Polat R, Ergil J, Sayin M, Caparlar CO. Comparison of randomized preemptive dexketoprofen trometamol or placebo tablets to prevent withdrawal movement caused by rocuronium injection. Journal of Anesthesia. 2014; 28: 471-474.

[94] Yoon JS, Jeon HJ, Cho SS, Lee JD, Kang KO, Ryu SW, et al. Effect of pretreatment with gabapentin on withdrawal movement associated with intravenous rocuronium injection. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2011; 61: 367-371.

[95] Pandey A, Singh DL, Singh RN, Singh PL, Thokchom RS, Meitei

J. Nitrous oxide for the prevention of rocuronium injection pain: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Journal of Medical Society. 2013; 27: 140-143.

[96] Kim JH, Kim JH, Han SH, Hwang JW, Oh AY. Alfentanil is comparable to remifentanil in preventing withdrawal movement following rocuronium injection. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2009; 21: 9-12.

[97] Kim YH, Go YK, Lee JU, Chung WS, Shin YS, Han KC, et al. Pretreatment with nafamostat mesilate, a kallikrein inhibitor, to decrease withdrawal response associated with rocuronium. Journal of Anesthesia. 2010; 24: 549-552.

[98] Jung SM, Ko NY, Lim YS, Kang PS, Kwon HU. Comparison of Premixed NaHCO3 and lidocaine on rocuronium injection pain. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 48: 483-488.

[99] Kim YH, Yoon MJ. Dilution of rocuronium with 0.9% NaCl reduces withdrawal movement during anesthetic induction. Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2007; 2: 22-25.

[100] Kim YS, Lee JA. The effect of dilution with 0.9% normal saline on reducing withdrawal movement induced by rocuronium injection. Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2007; 2: 26-29.

[101] Han DW, Koo BN, Choi SH, Lee JS, Shin YS, Sharma M, et al. Neutralized rocuronium (pH 7.4) before administration prevents injection pain in awake patients: a randomized prospective trial. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2007; 19: 418-423.

[102] Tuncali B, Karci A, Tuncali BE, Mavioglu O, Olguner CG, Ayhan S, et al. Dilution of rocuronium to 0.5 mg/mL with 0.9% NaCl eliminates the pain during intravenous injection in awake patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2004; 99: 740-743, table of contents.

[103] Han DW, Koo BN, Hwang SI, Shin YS, Kim KJ. Rocuronium injection pain is attenuated by NaHCO3. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2003; 45: 697-701.

[104] Goo EK, Hwang JW, Kim HJ, Na HS, Park HP, Jeon YT, et al. Effect of bicarbonate on injection pain and onset of rocuronium. Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2009; 4: 260-264.

[105] Ki HS, So KY, Chung CD. The dose-dependent analgesic effect of ondansetron for pain on injection of rocuronium in adult. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 48: 145-148.

[106] Park JT, Choi JC, Yoo YS, Lee YB, Kim SY, Lim HK. The effect of pretreatment with thiopental on reducing pain induced by rocuronium injection. Yonsei Medical Journal. 2005; 46: 765-768.

[107] Cho K, Lee SH, Lee W, Chu BK, Kim MH, Lim SH, et al. Effect of

pretreatment with palonosetron on withdrawal movement associated with rocuronium injection. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2014; 66: 23-27.

[108] Chang HW, Kim SR, Lee YK. The effect of ketamine for pain on rocuronium injection pain. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 48: 479-482.

[109] Choi JH, Hwang JH, Shin YS. Comparison of the quantitative effect of ketamine on the vascular pain associated with intravenous rocuronium administration. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 49: 30-34.

[110] Choi HG, Kim DS, Chang TH, Kim SH, Kim KH, Ryu SJ. Appropriate dosage of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate for preventing injection pain of rocuronium during anesthetic induction. Korean Journal of Anesthesiol-ogy. 2006; 51: 162-166.

[111] Uzun S, Erden İA, Canbay O, Aypar U. The effect of intravenous paracetamol for the prevention of rocuronium injection pain. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014; 30: 566-569.

[112] Arndt J, Klement W. Pain evoked by polymodal stimulation of hand veins in humans. The Journal of Physiology. 1991; 440: 467-478.

[113] Kindgen-Milles D, Klement W, Arndt J. The nociceptive systems of skin, paravascular tissue and hand veins of humans and their sensitivity to bradykinin. Neuroscience letters. 1994; 181: 39-42.

[114] Jung SM, Kim SH, Lim YS, Kwon HU, Kang PS, Park CW. The effect of sodium bicarbonate or lidocaine mixed with rocuronium on withdrawal movement in pediatric patients. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 2005; 48: 514-519.

[115] Klement W, Arndt J. Pain on iv injection of some anaesthetic agents is evoked by the unphysiological osmolality or pH of their formulations. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 1991; 66: 189-195.

[116] Kim YH, Yoon MJ. Dilution of rocuronium with 0.9% NaCl reduces withdrawal movement during anesthetic induction. Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2007; 2: 22-25.

[117] Scott R, Saunders D, Norman J. Propofol: clinical strategies for preventing the pain of injection. Anaesthesia. 1988; 43: 492-494.

[118] Stein C, Millan MJ, Shippenberg TS, Peter K, Herz A. Peripheral opioid receptors mediating antinociception in inflammation. Evidence for involvement of mu, delta and kappa receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1989; 248: 1269-1275.

[119] Gallego AO, Baron MG, Arranz EE. Oxycodone: a pharmacological and clinical review. Clinical and Translational Oncology. 2007; 9: 298-307.

[120] Olesen AE, Staahl C, Arendt-Nielsen L, Drewes AM. Different effects of morphine and oxycodone in experimentally evoked hyperalgesia: a human translational study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2010; 70: 189-200.

[121] Iadarola MJ, Douglass J, Civelli O, Naranjo JR. Differential activation of spinal cord dynorphin and enkephalin neurons during hyperalgesia: evidence using cDNA hybridization. Brain Research. 1988; 455: 205-212.

[122] Nielsen CK, Ross FB, Lotfipour S, Saini KS, Edwards SR, Smith MT. Oxycodone and morphine have distinctly different pharmacological profiles: radioligand binding and behavioural studies in two rat models of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2007; 132: 289-300.

[123] Xiang X, Yuan X, Lian Y, Fang J, Wu Y. Effect of oxycodone hydrochloride combined with flurbiprofen axetil for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in lower abdominal patients: a randomized trial. Medicine. 2018; 97: e9911.

[124] Hagelüken A, Grünbaum L, Nürnberg B, Harhammer R, ScHunack W, Seifert R. Lipophilic β-adrenoceptor antagonists and local anesthetics are effective direct activators of G-proteins. Biochemical Pharmacology. 1994; 47: 1789-1795.

[125] Chia Y, Chan M, Ko N, Liu K. Role of β-blockade in anaesthesia and postoperative pain management after hysterectomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2004; 93: 799-805.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index The CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool is an online resource that can quickly identify or confirm journal titles and abbreviations for publications indexed by CAS since 1907, including serial and non-serial scientific and technical publications.

IndexCopernicus The Index Copernicus International (ICI) Journals database’s is an international indexation database of scientific journals. It covered international scientific journals which divided into general information, contents of individual issues, detailed bibliography (references) sections for every publication, as well as full texts of publications in the form of attached files (optional). For now, there are more than 58,000 scientific journals registered at ICI.

Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research The Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research (GFMER) is a non-profit organization established in 2002 and it works in close collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the Foundation are to promote and develop health education and research programs.

Scopus Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

Embase Embase (often styled EMBASE for Excerpta Medica dataBASE), produced by Elsevier, is a biomedical and pharmacological database of published literature designed to support information managers and pharmacovigilance in complying with the regulatory requirements of a licensed drug.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

    Top