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Volume assessment in heart failure - a review


1Department for Cardiovascular Diseases, University Hospital Sveti Duh, Sveti duh 64, Zagreb

2Internal Medicine Clinic, University Hospital Sveti Duh, Sveti duh 64, Zagreb

DOI: 10.22514/SV101.062015.11 Vol.10,Issue S1,June 2015 pp.44-46

Published: 22 June 2015

*Corresponding Author(s): PETAR PEKIĆ E-mail:

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Heart failure represents a significant medi-cal and economic burden and is also an important cause of mortality and morbid-ity. The advances in treating coronary ar-tery disease mainly pertaining to modern invasive cardiology significantly reduced the mortality from coronary atherosclero-sis, but on the other side caused an increase in incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure. Heart failure is a disease of the elderly. In that population the inci-dence is 10 in 1000 patients older than 65 years and has a high five-year mortality de-spite all modern treatment modalities.

Key words

heart failure, physical examina-tion, congestion

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PETAR PEKIĆ,DINKO BEKIĆ. Volume assessment in heart failure - a review. Signa Vitae. 2015. 10(S1);44-46.


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